ROME — After more than three decades of pressure from historians and Jewish organizations, Pope Francis announced on Monday that he would open the sealed archives from the World War II-era pontificate of Pius XII, allowing scholars to examine how the Vatican responded to Nazism and the Holocaust.
Some critics of Pius XII maintain that he was shamefully silent during the Nazi massacre of Jews during the war, while others claim he saved thousands of lives by ordering the Roman Catholic Church to assist victims of persecution.
“The church is not afraid of history,” Francis told officials and staff members of the Vatican Secret Archives, the papal repository that contains tens of thousands of documents related to Pius XII.
Francis said that Pius’s pontificate, which stretched from 1939 to 1958, had included “moments of serious difficulties, of tormented decisions, of human and Christian prudence.”
The Vatican usually opens its archives 70 years after the end of a pontificate, but scholars have been calling for the early release of Pius’s papers to allow historians to find answers to the myriad questions that have been raised about the role of the Vatican during those years.
Demands for access to Pius’s papers intensified in 2009 when the Vatican moved him closer to sainthood, a move cast by some Holocaust survivors and their families as “profoundly insensitive and thoughtless.”
Francis said the archives would be opened on March 2, 2020, the 81st anniversary of Pius’s election to pope.
Academics and Jewish organizations praised Francis’s decision.
“This is a tremendously exciting development, which scholars have been awaiting for decades,” said Susan Zuccotti, the author of “Under His Very Windows: The Vatican and the Holocaust in Italy.”
It will permit fresh insight, she said, into “Pius XII’s own opinions, his fears and possible bias, his policy formation, his priorities and preferences,” as well as those of his advisers.
Without direct access to the documents, scholarship about Pius XII has devolved into competing legends, said Anna Foa, a historian and retired professor at Rome University La Sapienza, who has written frequently about Jews in Italy.
“You couldn’t reason scientifically on the facts, so there was denigration or apologia,” she said. “Perhaps opening the archives is another sign of greater transparency in the church.”
But there was some skepticism that the archives would settle the debate over Pius’ legacy. Professor Foa suggested that documentation might have been scarce “in wartime Rome under Nazi occupation,” when there was fear that papers could fall into the wrong hands.
Rabbi Riccardo Di Segni, the chief rabbi of Rome, said that a commission of Catholic and Jewish experts that had been set up 20 years ago to examine the archives had “run aground after scholars were not given free access” to the Vatican’s wartime papers.
He said he hoped that this time, the Vatican would give full access to all the papers in its possession.
“From my understanding, there is an enormous quantity of documents, so the examination of the papers will take scholars years, if not decades,” he said.
Bishop Sergio Pagano, who directs the Vatican Secret Archives, said that it had taken years of “patient work” for in-house archivists to prepare the papers for study. He wrote about the process in an article published on Monday in the Vatican newspaper, L’Osservatore Romano.
Pius XII “has been too superficially judged and criticized for some aspects of his pontificate,” Bishop Pagano wrote. The opening of the archives will allow historians to investigate his papacy, “without prejudice, through access to the new documents, in all its realistic scope and richness.”
Criticism of Pope Pius’ perceived inaction during World War II gained traction in 1963 with the publication of Rolf Hochhuth’s play, “The Deputy, A Christian Tragedy,” which accused the pope of indifference to the Holocaust. It was so contentious that Pope Paul VI ordered the release of some official Vatican records relating to the wartime period. Between 1965 and 1981, church historians published 11 volumes of documents that critics called selective and insufficient.
Pope John Paul II gave researchers access to some archival collections pertaining to some aspects of Pius XII’s pontificate in 2004. When Pope Benedict XVI opened the archives relating to Pius XI, in 2006, “work was already underway for the progressive preparation of the documentary material of Pius XII, which many scholars demanded with ever greater insistence,” wrote Bishop Pagano in L’Osservatore Romano.
But independent scholars clamored for direct access to the papers.
Sara J. Bloomfield, director of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington said in a statement on Monday that it was “long overdue for speculation to be replaced by rigorous scholarship, which is only possible once scholars have full access to all of these records. This is important for the sake of historical truth, but there is moral urgency too: we owe this to the survivor generation, which is rapidly diminishing.”
Rabbi David Rosen, the international director of interreligious affairs with the American Jewish Committee, said Francis’ decision to make the materials fully available would be “enormously important to Catholic-Jewish relations.” The committee has pressed the Vatican for more than three decades to make the wartime papers public.
In a statement, Rabbi Rosen said scholars would now be able to evaluate the “historical record of that most terrible of times — to acknowledge both the failures as well as the valiant efforts made during the period of the systematic murder of six million Jews.”B:
管家婆买马免费资料【方】【竹】【韵】【见】【状】【急】【了】，【这】【可】【是】【宝】【贝】【女】【儿】【喜】【欢】【的】【狗】，【更】【何】【况】，【前】【几】【日】【刚】【立】【了】【大】【功】，【本】【就】【身】【有】【重】【疾】，【踢】【坏】【了】【可】【怎】【么】【办】。 【她】【冲】【南】【锦】【儒】【发】【火】【道】，“【谁】【准】【你】【踢】【我】【们】【家】【的】【狗】？！【下】【脚】【竟】【然】【还】【这】【么】【重】！” “【我】，【我】【看】【它】【凶】【神】【恶】【煞】【的】【扑】【过】【来】，【怕】【它】【伤】【了】【你】。” “【它】【哪】【里】【凶】【神】【恶】【煞】【了】？！【只】【不】【过】【是】【威】【武】【了】【一】【些】【而】【已】。【什】【么】【眼】【神】【啊】？！
【然】【而】【令】【人】【大】【跌】【眼】【镜】【的】【是】，【那】【条】【正】【在】【追】【逐】【的】【亚】【龙】【顿】【住】【了】【飞】【行】，【毫】【不】【犹】【豫】【的】【转】【身】【离】【开】，【离】【开】【了】。 【离】【开】【了】…… 【安】【启】【伦】【三】【人】：？？？ 【只】【剩】【下】3【个】【人】【正】【在】【鬼】【哭】【狼】【嚎】【的】【拼】【命】【向】【他】【们】【这】【里】【跑】【来】。 “【吓】？！”【森】【尼】【张】【开】【嘴】【巴】，【拳】【头】【上】【的】【火】【焰】【随】【之】【熄】【灭】，【揉】【了】【揉】【眼】【睛】，【不】【敢】【置】【信】【眼】【前】【的】【一】【幕】，“【这】【是】【怎】【么】【回】【事】？【是】【我】【眼】【花】【了】管家婆买马免费资料【奎】【妮】【的】【动】【作】【很】【快】，【她】【只】【回】【去】【了】【两】【天】，【第】【四】【天】【就】【从】【自】【己】【老】【师】【所】【在】【的】【小】【岛】【上】【返】【回】【了】【莫】【沙】【彻】，【又】【来】【到】【嘉】【一】【家】【里】。 【她】【带】【来】【了】【麦】【格】【尼】·【斯】【科】【尔】【的】【邀】【请】，【麦】【格】【尼】【邀】【请】【他】【去】【参】【加】【一】【个】【元】【素】【学】【派】【内】【部】【法】【师】【的】【聚】【会】，【准】【备】【将】【论】【文】【作】【为】【聚】【会】【上】【的】【一】【个】【议】【题】，【供】【大】【家】【来】【讨】【论】。 【这】【既】【是】【为】【了】【让】【大】【家】【群】【策】【群】【力】【指】【出】【不】【足】，【同】【时】【也】【是】【一】【个】【预】【演】，
“【不】【是】【你】【说】【的】【吗】？【她】【生】【前】【最】【爱】【美】【了】，【我】【作】【为】【她】【曾】【经】【的】【相】【公】，【怎】【么】【会】【不】【知】【道】【一】【夜】【夫】【妻】【百】【日】【恩】【呢】？【总】【归】【是】【不】【能】【让】【她】【对】【我】【再】【怀】【揣】【着】【怨】【恨】【之】【心】【吧】。” “【你】【说】【的】【可】【是】【真】【的】？”【慕】【流】【风】【看】【着】【邹】【长】【青】【走】【进】【并】【把】【自】【己】【身】【上】【的】【绳】【子】【解】【开】，【慕】【流】【风】【才】【知】【道】【原】【来】【邹】【长】【青】【并】【没】【有】【说】【笑】。 “【走】【吧】，【别】【让】【他】【们】【等】【太】【久】，【也】【别】【让】【她】【等】【太】【久】。”
【小】【樱】【忽】【然】【现】【身】【在】【自】【己】【眼】【前】。 【拓】【马】【从】【细】【胞】【发】【出】【的】【本】【能】【中】【体】【认】【到】，【眼】【前】【的】【女】【孩】【毫】【无】【疑】【问】【就】【是】【他】【所】【爱】【慕】【的】【对】【象】。 【当】【然】，【对】【于】【小】【樱】【为】【何】【置】【身】【此】【处】，【他】【也】【会】【感】【到】【疑】【惑】。 【不】【过】【在】【脑】【中】【浮】【现】【出】【这】【个】【琐】【碎】【疑】【问】【的】【同】【时】，【他】【的】【胸】【中】【也】【涌】【现】【出】【另】【一】【股】【更】【为】【澎】【湃】【的】【情】【感】。 ──【总】【算】【见】【到】【你】【了】。 【在】【樱】【花】【色】【的】【光】【芒】【包】【裹】【之】【下】，【这】
【雷】【电】【中】，【叶】【修】【微】【微】【笑】【着】【的】【表】【情】，【印】【入】【麦】【克】【亚】【当】【的】【心】【中】，【这】【个】【小】【姑】【娘】，【永】【远】【都】【不】【会】【忘】【记】【叶】【修】【的】【笑】【容】，【这】【个】【笑】【容】【当】【中】，【是】【代】【表】【着】【安】【全】。 【雷】【电】【竟】【然】【没】【有】【伤】【害】【他】【们】【分】【毫】。 【他】【抬】【起】【头】【看】【向】【远】【方】，【乌】【云】【当】【中】，【因】【为】【闪】【烁】【的】【雷】【电】，【出】【现】【一】【个】【黑】【色】【的】【巨】【型】【身】【影】，【这】【道】【身】【影】【躲】【在】【乌】【云】【的】【背】【后】，【一】【共】【三】【颗】【脑】【袋】，【拥】【有】【狰】【狞】【的】【五】【官】。